1. 【通灵】菲茨杰拉德化平庸为神奇的法力

很多读者问过风景怎么写,先说其中的一个窍门:写风景最好有动态。

比如我经常提到的汪曾祺代表作《受戒》的结尾:

芦花才吐新穗。紫灰色的芦穗,发着银光,软软的,滑溜溜的,像一串丝线。有的地方结了蒲棒,通红的,像一枝一枝小蜡烛。青浮萍,紫浮萍。长脚蚊子,水蜘蛛。野菱角开着四瓣的小白花。惊起一只青桩(一种水鸟),擦着芦穗,扑鲁鲁鲁飞远了。

……

前面都是静景,但以动态的一个句子收尾,造成余韵不绝的效果,很妙。

鲁迅他老人家不常写景,我在脑中回顾他最好的景笔,发现恰恰也是动态的:

我仿佛记得曾坐小船经过山阴道,两岸边的乌桕、新禾、野花、鸡、狗,丛树和枯树、茅屋、塔、伽蓝,农夫和村妇、村女、晒着的衣裳,和尚、蓑笠,天、云、竹……,都倒影在澄碧的小河中,随着每一打桨,各各夹带了闪烁的日光,并水里的萍藻游鱼,一同荡漾。诸影诸物:无不解散,而且摇动、扩大,互相融和;刚一融和,却又退缩,复近于原形。边缘都参差如夏云头,镶着日光,发出水银色焰。

出自《野草》里的一篇,题目叫《好的故事》。

下面言归正传,开说菲茨杰拉德吧。最擅长写动景的作家大概就是他了,风景们遇到菲茨杰拉德可算是遭了殃,因为他从不遵循“大事化小小事化了”的美德,没有动态创造动态也要写,无中生有,兴风作浪,怎么着都要给搅扰个透。

看他在《了不起的盖茨比》里如何写草坪:

The lawn started at the beach and ran toward the front door for a quarter of a mile, jumping over sundials and brick walks and burning gardens - finally when it reached the house drifting up the side in bright vines as though from the momentum of its run. The front was broken by a line of French windows, glowing now with reflected gold …

草坪从海滩发足奔向大门,一路奔了有四百来米,跨过日晷、砖径和绚烂的花园——终于奔到房前,像是借助于奔跑的势头,一跃而成绿油油的常青藤继续向上。迎面,一排法式落地窗破绿壁而出,金光闪闪…… [6]

人家好端端一个静如处子的草坪,生生被他写得动如脱兔了。菲茨杰拉德就像个魔法师,有化平庸为神奇的法力。再比如下面这一段,其实不过是个烧垃圾形成的灰场,没什么特别的,但菲茨杰拉德愣是写得叫人一读就不能忘记。

This is a valley of ashes - a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and, finally, with a transcendent effort, of ash-grey men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air. Occasionally a line of grey cars crawls along an invisible track, gives out a ghastly creak, and comes to rest, and immediately the ash-grey men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight.

这是一个灰烬之谷——这里就像一个奇幻诡异的农场,垃圾烧成的灰像小麦似的不停生长,长成了山脊、小丘和丑怪的园子,再不然便化成了房舍、烟囱和炊烟的样子。最后,以超绝的本领幻化成人形,一个个蒙着灰烬的人走动着,姿态模糊,在满是粉尘的空气中,也像快要崩塌粉碎似的。偶尔会有成排灰蒙蒙的车厢,沿着一条看不见的轨道缓缓驶来,发出阴森的嘎吱声之后停下来,那些扛着铅铲的灰汉子便蜂拥而上,扬起一朵坚不可摧的灰云遮蔽住视线,使你看不见他们令人费解的活动。

从灰烬里变出人来了,简直就是个“大变活人”节目嘛。而除了化静为动、大变活人,菲茨杰拉德还会催眠术。且看下面两段:

1. A breeze blew through the room, blew curtains in at one end and out the other like pale flags, twisting them up towards the frosted wedding-cake of the ceiling, and then rippled over the wine-colored rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.

一阵清风吹过房间,这头的窗帘吹进来,那头的窗帘吹出去,如同飘忽的旗子,翻卷向天花板上结婚蛋糕形的装饰。风又轻拂过酒红色的地毯,就像轻拂过海面那样形成一片暗影。

2. The only completely stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an anchored balloon. they were both in white, and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house. I must have stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the cur-tains and the groan of a picture on the wall. Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind died out about the room, and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to the floor.

房里唯一静止的东西是一张巨大的沙发,两个年轻女人在上头飘着,仿佛坐在一个系着的热气球上。这两个女人都穿着白衣裳,裙裾都吹得飘飘然,仿佛她们绕着屋子飞了一圈,风才刚把她们吹回来似的。我站着听窗帘拍打的声音,还有墙上一幅画发出的吱嘎声响,想必杵了好一会儿。忽然,砰然一声,汤姆·布坎农关上了后面的落地窗,室内的余风才渐渐平息,窗帘、地毯和年轻女人便乘着热气球,缓缓落回地面。

动荡不定,令人眼晕。不过请大家在眼晕的当儿还是勉力拿出点理智,仔细想一想:并非台风飓风龙卷风(typhoon/hurricane/tornado),一个轻量级的“breeze”,怎么整得这么天翻地覆的?

想一下催眠术是怎么回事吧:一根绳拴个重物晃来晃去,其实并没在空气中造成多大涟漪,但架不住你聚焦视线,于是就看晕了,中招了。菲茨杰拉德不正是如此?牵着你的目光走,哪里动作大就让你盯着看哪里。你跺你也麻,谁看谁都晕啊。

写汤姆的情妇,也是这套路:

Her laughter, her gestures, her assertions became more violently affected moment by moment and as she expanded the room grew smaller around her until she seemed to be revolving on a noisy, creaking pivot through the smoky air.

她的笑声、姿势和言谈一刻比一刻更加矫揉造作。只见她人逐渐膨胀而周围的屋子随之变小。到最后,烟雾弥漫中,她简直像走马灯似的,在吱吱喳喳的木轴上转动不休。

菲茨杰拉德精心编织了一张动荡的大网,高频使用着“restless”这样的词。哪怕人物不折不扣在静卧着,他也务必要叫读者看得心神难安。比如写乔丹·贝克的一段:

She was extended full length at her end of the divan, completely motionless, and with her chin raised a little, as if she were balancing something on it which was likely to fall.

她直躺在沙发一头,身子一动不动,下巴稍微向上抬起,仿佛在平衡一件什么东西,生怕它掉下来似的。

读了《了不起的盖茨比》之后,很多人对那个时代的印象就刻板成“躁动”和“浮华”了。事实上,土豪一掷千金以及穷小子苦恋白富美的剧情,古今中外上演不断,哪里爵士时代就特别躁动尤其浮华了。菲茨杰拉德通过不遗余力的渲染和暗示,成功地以文字造就了一个具有特殊风貌的世界,妥妥地蛊惑了天真的读者。

这种以执着的理念扭曲现实的笔法,令我想到了沈从文笔下的乌托邦湘西。《人间词话》里说,“有造境,有写境,此理想与现实二派之所由分”。我认为沈从文和菲茨杰拉德就是致力于造境的理想派(或说理念派)的小说家。沈从文行伍出身,经历坎坷,不可能不了解生计世道和人心,但在《边城》里,就那么执拗地要把湘西小城写得纯美,如梦似幻。《人间词话》接着又说,“然二者颇难分别。因大诗人所造之境,必合乎自然,所写之境,亦必邻于理想”。沈和菲两人的笔法都太高超了,虽造境却又合乎自然,一点破绽都没有,于是读者们就前赴后继地被催眠了。

菲茨杰拉德的造境还表现在“爱作谶语和断语”这一点上。所谓谶,是预测未来而应验的意思。不过这里强调的点不在于应验,因为毕竟是虚构,要应验还不容易;我这里强调的谶语和断语是那种笃定于玄虚之事,知天命,以小见大,以一瞬定终身的姿态。红口白牙,言之凿凿,堪比我们老家大河边的算命师傅。

比如尼克第一次见到盖茨比,盖茨比的微笑是这样的:

He smiled understandingly - much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced - or seemed to face - the whole external world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. It understood you just as far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself, and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to convey.

他笑了笑表示理解——不,远不止理解。这是极为罕见的笑容,带有永恒的宽慰,你一辈子大概只能遇见四五次。它先是发散于整个外部世界,但瞬间后就执着地倾注在你身上,偏袒于你。你希望别人怎么理解你,它就怎么理解你,它信任你就像你信任自己,它还使你确信,它对你的印象正是你最想给予的那种印象。

从一个微笑里看出整个永恒世界,这修辞真是足够浮夸了。但是不得不承认,读者很吃这一套。

其实以小见大,动不动就扯出特别辽远壮阔的时间和空间,也是咱们郭敬明教主擅长的一招。这就有点像占星师了。把平凡人生活里鸡零狗碎的事情,不厌其烦地和头顶上浩瀚的星空连接起来。

郭教主的例子随便一搜,比比皆是——

1.我们出生,成长,恋爱,结婚,生子,衰老,死去。……是那样一个漫长而庞大的过程。云可以变成雨水冲刷山路,芦苇可以一直拔节倒插进天空,无数的树木可以拔地而起然后重新倒下,甚至在这样的时光里会有一些星星幻灭在宇宙里。而宇宙是另外一个更加漫长而庞大的过程。

2.这些如同不肯愈合的伤口一样寂寞的人,总会在每个夜晚铁马冰河般地闯入我的梦中。前世今生。物是人非。斗转星移。沧海桑田。一梦千年。永世不醒。

写《惊惶庞麦郎》的记者鲸书也会用:

时间从来不是线性的,所有过去累叠在一起,一万个夏天荡漾,每一个夏天里的你都嗔痴哭笑,你的过去是一个测不准、时刻跃迁的分子,他们同时存在,互不干扰,你人生中的两万天其实是在同一微秒进行的,在其中无序变幻的,只是作为量子态的你而已。

还有果壳主笔游识猷的一段:

如果每个人都是一颗小星球,逝去的亲友就是身边的暗物质。我愿能再见你,我知我再见不到你。但你的引力仍在。我感激我们的光椎曾彼此重叠,而你永远改变了我的星轨。纵使再不能相见,你仍是我所在的星系未曾分崩离析的原因,是我宇宙之网的永恒组成。总有一天我也会塌缩成一团黑暗,但更遥远的未来,会有人在千万光年之外,看到我们曾经存在,知道我们从未离开。

鲸书和游识猷的更棒,毕竟一个学物理专业,一个是果壳主笔,写起宇宙时空来段位高。

盖茨比的结尾部分也使用了类似的手法:

Its vanished trees, the trees that had made way for Gatsby’s house, had once pandered in whispers to the last and greatest of all human dreams; for a transitory enchanted moment man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent, compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired, face to face for the last time in history with something commensu-rate to his capacity for wonder.

它那些消失了的树木,那些为盖茨比的别墅让路而遭砍伐的树木,曾经一度迎风飘摇,低声响应人类最后的也是最伟大的梦想。在那昙花一现的神妙瞬间,人面对这个新大陆一定屏息惊奇,不由自主地堕入一种他既不理解也不企求的美学凝视中,史上最后一次和配得上他的惊奇能力的事物面面相觑。

本来是尼克在那里伤感追念盖茨比,但镜头一下子拉远,把个人微弱却清晰的忧伤,消融到了人类整体面对世界的巨大茫然中。

《了不起的盖茨比》中还有一段特别著名的谶语、断语,是盖茨比对黛西声音的形容:

“She’s got an indiscreet voice,” I remarked. “It’s full of —” I hesitated.

“Her voice is full of money,” He said suddenly.

That was it. I’d never understood before. It was full of money — that was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, the jingle of it, the cymbal’s song of it…High in a white palace the king’s daughter, the golden girl…

“她的声音很不寻常,”我说,“它充满了……”我犹疑了一下。

“她的声音充满了金钱。”他突然说。

正是这样。我以前从没领悟过。它充满了金钱——金钱是她声音里抑扬起伏的无尽魅力,叮当作响,铙钹齐鸣……高高地在白色宫殿里,国王的女儿,黄金女郎……

“Her voice is full of money. ”这句话简直无懈可击。什么也没说,但是好像什么又都说尽了;怎么理解都可以,怎么解释都能通。这令我想起了那个高明的算命先生,三个读书人问今年能否考中,他伸出一个手指头。无论是一起考上了,一起落榜了,还是其中一个没考上,其中一个考上了,八种排列组合,全部都能涵盖。

化静为动,点石成金,催眠卜算……菲茨杰拉德俨然一位通灵的上师,衣五彩,饰杜若,登上文字的高台,手之舞之,足之蹈之,使出种种手段,用上条条伎俩,令一百年来英语读者为之陶醉、痴迷,反复吟咏,不知疲倦。记得和一位美国朋友讨论过《了不起的盖茨比》,他满脸花痴地说:“里面的每一句话都值得背诵……”

但中文的读者是没法抵达这样的审美巅峰的。因为上师作法,“乐”与“舞”同重,菲茨杰拉德的行文有一种无与伦比的音乐性,语感极佳。(他太知道音乐的重要了,要不然,为什么设定黛西最迷人之处是声音呢。)However,只有英文的读者才能既看到上师缓节而舞,又听到他徐歌相和。经过翻译,精妙的语感很难不丧失。咱们中文读者又比不得日文读者的幸运,能拥有村上春树这么一位自身也以语感见长的大作家来翻译。

村上可以算是菲茨杰拉德的全球第一大粉丝,他如是说:

菲茨杰拉德的文章具有独特的美感和韵律,会让人联想起优秀的音乐作品。他用这种节奏驾驭着文字,就像童话故事里魔法豆的枝蔓向天空伸展一般展开他的叙述。流利的语言接连诞生,不断成长,为寻求空间流畅地在空中移动,真是一幅美丽的景色。……

我十分重视行文的节奏。我认为这是菲茨杰拉德作品的本质所在,所以我首先要把这种节奏移植到日语这片土壤中,在它周围小心翼翼地添加旋律、音响和抒情诗。……有时他的作品需要用耳朵来聆听,需要出声地朗读。……首先有流动的节奏,然后紧密相连的词语自然地喷涌而出。这就是我所理解的菲茨杰拉德作品的美妙之处。

所以,最后,让我们一起出声朗读《了不起的盖茨比》的末尾两段吧:

Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter — tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther… And one fine morning —

So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.

Copyright & copy 7dtime.com 2014-2018 all right reserved,powered by Gitbook该文件修订时间: 2018-06-23 09:37:36

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